Central block of Regent Court from Bradfield Road, Hillsborough, Sheffield
1922 Aurel Persu automobile was the first car to have the wheels inside its aerodynamic line.
1948 Hudson Commodore was designed without a wind tunnel, but later tests showed almost 20% less drag than contemporary notchback sedans.
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Streamline style can be contrasted with functionalism, which was a leading design style in Europe at the same time. One reason for the simple designs in functionalism was to lower the production costs of the items, making them affordable to the large European working class. Streamlining and functionalism represent two very different schools in modernistic industrial design, but both reflecting the intended consumer.
The oldest surviving example of Streamline design in the United States is the 1929 Lake Worth Playhouse, in Lake Worth, Florida.
Santa Fe Railway’s San Francisco Chief, a late 1940s streamlined design with paint scheme dating from the late 1930s
1921 The Rumpler Tropfenwagen was to be the first streamlined car.
Horizontal orientation Rounded edges, corner windows Glass brick walls Porthole windows Chrome hardware Smooth exterior wall surfaces, usually stucco (smooth plaster finish) Flat roof with coping Also no roof at all, with no coping.
Horizontal grooves or lines in walls Subdued colors: base colors were typically light earth tones, off-whites, or beiges; and trim colors were typically dark colors (or bright metals) to contrast from the light base
Categories: Streamline Moderne architectureStreamlinersArt Deco architecture20th-century architectural stylesStreamline Moderne architecture in the United States
The first streamline buildings evolved from the work of New Objectivity artists, a movement connected to the German Werkbund, that was initiated by Hermann Muthesius (see e.g. Mossehaus).
Judge’s tower in the Aquatic Park Historic District, San Francisco
1923 Mossehaus, Berlin. Reconstruction by Erich Mendelsohn and Richard Neutra 1926: Long Beach Airport Main Terminal, Long Beach, California 1928: Lockheed Vega, designed by John Knudsen Northrop, a six-passenger, single-engine aircraft used by Amelia Earhart 1928–1930: Canada Permanent Trust Building, Toronto 1930: Strand Palace Hotel, London; foyer designed by Oliver Percy Bernard 1930: Maison de la radio, Place Flagey, Brussels, by Joseph Diongre 1930–1934: Broadway Mansions, Shanghai, designed by B.
Flazer of Palmer and Turner 1931: The Eaton’s Seventh Floor in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, designed by Jacques Carlu, in the former Eaton’s department store 1931: Napier, New Zealand, rebuilt in Art Deco and Streamline Moderne styles after a major earthquake 1931–1933: Hamilton GO Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada by Alfred T.
Fellheimer 1932: Edifício Columbus, São Paulo, Brazil (demolished 1971) 1933: Casa della Gioventù del Littorio, designed by Luigi Moretti, Rome 1933: Ty Kodak building in Quimper, France, designed by Olier Mordrel 1933: Southgate tube station, London 1933: Burnham Beeches in Sherbrooke, Victoria, Australia.
Harry Norris architect 1933: Merle Norman Building, Santa Monica, California See also History of Santa Monica, California 1933: Midland Hotel, Morecambe, Morecambe, England 1933: Edificio Lapido, Montevideo, Uruguay 1933–1940: Interior of Chicago’s Museum of Science and Industry, designed by Alfred Shaw 1934: Pioneer Zephyr, the first of Edward G.
Budd’s streamlined stainless-steel locomotives 1934: Tatra 77, the first mass-market streamline automotive design 1934: Chrysler Airflow, the second mass-market streamline automotive design 1934: Hotel Shangri-La (Santa Monica), California 1934: Edifício Nicolau Schiesser, São Paulo, Brazil (demolished 2014) 1935: Jubilee Pool (Penzance, Cornwall), England 1935: Ford Building (San Diego, California), Balboa Park 1935: The De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, England 1935: Pan Pacific Auditorium, Los Angeles 1935: Edificio Internacional de Capitalización, Mexico City, Mexico 1935: The Hindenburg, Zeppelin passenger accommodations 1935: The interior of Lansdowne House on Berkeley Square in Mayfair, London 1935: The Hamilton Hydro-Electric System Building, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 1935: MV Kalakala, the world’s first streamlined ferry 1935–1956: High Tower Court, Hollywood Heights, Los Angeles 1936: Lasipalatsi, in Helsinki, Finland, functionalist office building and now a cultural and media center 1936: Florin Court, on Charterhouse Square in London, built by Guy Morgan and Partners 1936: Campana Factory, historic factory in Batavia, Illinois.
1936: Edifício Guarani, São Paulo, Brazil 1937: Blytheville Greyhound Bus Station, Blytheville, Arkansas 1937: Regent Court, residential apartments on Bradfield Road, Hillsborough, Sheffield 1937: Malloch Building, residential apartments at 1360 Montgomery Street in San Francisco 1937: B and B Chemical Company, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, built by Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch & Abbott 1937: Belgium Pavilion, at the Exposition Internationale, Paris 1937: TAV Studios (Brenemen’s Restaurant), Hollywood 1937: Hecht Company Warehouse, Washington, D.
C. 1937: Minerva (or Metro) Theatre and the Minerva Building, Potts Point, New South Wales, Australia 1937: Bather’s Building in the Aquatic Park Historic District, now the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park Maritime Museum 1937: Barnum Hall (High School auditorium), Santa Monica, California 1937: J.
W. Knapp Company Building (department store) Lansing, Michigan 1937: Wan Chai Market, Wan Chai, Hong Kong 1937: River Oaks Shopping Center, Houston 1937: Toronto Stock Exchange Building, mix of Art Deco and Streamline Moderne 1937: Pittsburgh Plate Glass Enamel Plant, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by Alexander C.
Eschweiler 1937: Old Greyhound Bus Station (Jackson, Mississippi) 1937: Gramercy Theatre, New York City 1938: Mark Keppel High School, Alhambra, California 1938: Normandie building, Mar del Plata 1938: Danum House, Doncaster, England 1938: 20th Century Limited, New York City 1938: Jones Dog & Cat Hospital, West Hollywood, California, by Wurdeman & Beckett (remodel of 1928 original construction) 1938: Greyhound Bus Depot (Columbia, South Carolina) 1939: Bartlesville High School, Bartlesville, Oklahoma 1939: Coca-Cola Building (Los Angeles), California 1939: First Church of Deliverance, Chicago, Illinois 1939: Marine Air Terminal, LaGuardia Airport, New York City 1939: Road Island Diner, Oakley, Utah 1939: Pennsylvania Railroad PRR S1 streamlined steam train, designed by Raymond Loewy 1939: New York World’s Fair 1939: Cardozo Hotel, Ocean Drive, South Beach, Miami Beach, Florida 1939: Royer Building in Ephrata, Pennsylvania 1939: Daily Express Building, Manchester, England 1939: East Finchley tube station, London, England 1940: Gabel Kuro jukebox designed by Brooks Stevens 1940: Ann Arbor Bus Depot, Michigan 1940: Jai Alai Building, Taft Avenue Manila, Philippines (demolished 2000) 1940: Hollywood Palladium, Los Angeles, California 1940: Las Vegas Union Pacific Station, Las Vegas, Nevada 1941: Avalon Hotel, Ocean Drive, South Beach, Miami Beach, Florida 1942: Normandie Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico 1942: Mercantile National Bank Building, Dallas 1942: Musick Memorial Radio Station, Auckland, New Zealand 1943: Edifício Trussardi in São Paulo, Brazil 1944: Huntridge Theater, Las Vegas, Nevada 1946: Gerry Building, Los Angeles, California 1946: Canada Dry Bottling Plant, Silver Spring, Maryland 1946: Broadway Theatre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan 1947: Sears Building, Santa Monica, California 1948: Greyhound Bus Station, Cleveland 1949: Sault Memorial Gardens, Sault Ste.
Marie, Ontario 1949: Varsity Theatre, Davis, California 1950: Ocean Terminal, Southampton, England (demolished 1983) 1951: Federal Reserve Bank Building, Seattle, Washington 1954: Poitiers Theater designed by Edouard Lardillier 1955: Iowa State Bank & Trust Building, Fairfield 1955: Eight Forty One (former Prudential Life Insurance Building), Jacksonville, Florida, designed by KBJ Architects 1957–2006: Star Ferry Pier, Central, Hong Kong (demolished) 1957: Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier, Hong Kong 1965: Hung Hom Ferry Pier, Hong Kong 1968–2014: Wan Chai Pier, Hong Kong (demolished) In motion pictures Aircraft and buildings in William Cameron Menzies’s 1936 movie Things to Come The buildings in Frank Capra’s 1937 movie Lost Horizon, designed by Stephen Goosson The design of the “Emerald City” in the 1939 movie The Wizard of Oz The main character’s helmet and rocket pack in the 1991 movie The Rocketeer The High Tower apartments, featured in the 1973 film The Long Goodbye and 1991 film Dead Again The Malloch Apartment Building at 1360 Montgomery St, San Francisco that serves as apartment for Lauren Bacall’s character in Dark Passage See also Art Deco Constructivist architecture Raygun Gothic Googie architecture Century of Progress Chicago’s second World’s Fair (1933–34) Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) (1937 Paris Exposition) PWA Moderne – a Moderne style in the United States completed between 1933 and 1944 as part of relief projects sponsored by the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) References External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Streamline Moderne architecture.
Streamline Moderne, Flickr Streamline Moderne, Decopix “Streamline Moderne & Nautical Moderne Architecture in Miami Beach”, Miami Beach Magazine “San Francisco 1939 Modern ‘Wedding Cake'”, HGTV.com
The Streamline Moderne was both a reaction to Art Deco and a reflection of austere economic times; Sharp angles were replaced with simple, aerodynamic curves. Exotic woods and stone were replaced with concrete and glass.
1929: The Schienenzeppelin or rail zeppelin was an experimental railcar which resembled a zeppelin airship in appearance. It accelerated the railcar to 230.2 km/h (143 mph) setting the land speed record for a petrol powered rail vehicle.
The Normandie Hotel, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was inspired by the ocean liner SS Normandie and displays the ship’s original sign.
As the Great Depression of the 1930s progressed, Americans saw a new aspect of Art Deco—i.e., streamlining, a concept first conceived by industrial designers who stripped Art Deco design of its ornament in favor of the aerodynamic pure-line concept of motion and speed developed from scientific thinking. Cylindrical forms and long horizontal windowing also may be influenced by constructivism. As a result, an array of designers quickly ultra-modernized and streamlined the designs of everyday objects. Manufacturers of clocks, radios, telephones, cars, furniture, and many other household appliances embraced the concept.
The Las Vegas Union Pacific Railroad station (demolished 1971)
The style was the first to incorporate electric light into architectural structure. In the first-class dining room of the SS Normandie, fitted out 1933–35, twelve tall pillars of Lalique glass, and 38 columns lit from within illuminated the room. The Strand Palace Hotel foyer (1930), preserved from demolition by the Victoria and Albert Museum during 1969, was one of the first uses of internally lit architectural glass, and coincidentally was the first Moderne interior preserved in a museum.
Art Deco and Streamline Moderne were not necessarily opposites. Streamline Moderne buildings with a few Deco elements were not uncommon but the prime movers behind streamline design (Raymond Loewy, Walter Dorwin Teague, Gilbert Rohde, Norman Bel Geddes) all disliked Art Deco, seeing it as effete and falsely modern—essentially a fraud.
Streamlining became a widespread design practice for automobiles, railroad cars, buses, and other vehicles in the 1930s. Notable automobile examples include the 1934 Chrysler Airflow, the 1950 Nash Ambassador “Airflyte” sedan with its distinctive low fender lines, as well as Hudson’s postwar cars, such as the Commodore, that “were distinctive streamliners—ponderous, massive automobiles with a style all their own”.
1934 Tatra 77 is the first serial-produced truly aerodynamically designed automobile.
Greyhound Bus Depot (Columbia, South Carolina), 1937 George D. Brown (architect) Media related to Greyhound bus terminals at Wikimedia Commons
Common characteristics of Streamline Moderne and Art Moderne
1939 Schlörwagen – Subsequent wind tunnel tests yielded a drag coefficient of 0.113
New York Central steam locomotive restyled by industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss, 1938
PWA Moderne was a related style in the United States of buildings completed between 1933 and 1944 as part of relief projects sponsored by the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA).
Streamline Moderne, sometimes termed Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art Deco architecture and graphic design/style that emerged in the 1930s. Its architectural style emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, and sometimes nautical elements. Moderne architecture includes other subtypes besides Art Moderne/Streamline, such as PWA Moderne.
20th Century Limited (1938), train designed by Henry Dreyfuss Media related to streamlined locomotives at Wikimedia Commons
Hamilton Hydro-Electric System Building (1935), Hamilton, Ontario
The style was applied to appliances such as electric clocks, sewing machines, small radio receivers and vacuum cleaners. Their manufacturing processes exploited developments in materials science including aluminium and bakelite. Compared to Europe, the United States in the 1930s had a stronger focus on design as a means to increase sales of consumer products. Streamlining was associated with prosperity and an exciting future. This hope resonated with the American middle class, the major market for consumer products. A wide range of goods from refrigerators to pencil sharpeners was produced in streamlined designs.
Former Star Ferry Pier in Central, Hong Kong, now demolished
Although Streamline Moderne houses are less common than streamline commercial buildings, residences do exist. The Lydecker House in Los Angeles, built by Howard Lydecker, is an example of Streamline Moderne design in residential architecture. In tract development, elements of the style were frequently used as a variation in postwar row housing in San Francisco’s Sunset District.
1 Background 2 Characteristics 3 Industrial design 4 Notable examples 4.1 In architecture and design 4.2 In motion pictures 5 See also 6 References 7 External links
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The Normandie Hotel, which opened during 1942, is built in the stylized shape of the ocean liner SS Normandie, and it includes the ship’s original sign. The Sterling Streamliner Diners were diners designed like streamlined trains.
A Century of Progress International Exposition The Streamlined World’s Fair Chicago 1933-34 With Mussolini occupied far away in Italy and the name of “Adolf Hitler” just a mention in a newspaper article, one was able to come to the Chicago…
Bathers’ Building, now the Maritime Museum (1937) in San Francisco’s Aquatic Park, evokes a streamlined double-ended ferryboat.